Essay on freud's defense mechanisms - correlation research definition pdf


 

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essay on freud's defense mechanisms

essay on freud's defense mechanismsEssay on freud's defense mechanisms -He was an Austrian neurologist and the co-founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology.However in recent decades several researchers have returned to the original documents and found that the received story, based on Freud's late retrospective account of the episode, is false in many respects.The following has been adapted from the Wikipedia website.Despite this change in his explanatory model, Freud always recognized that some neurotics had been sexually abused by their fathers, and was quite explicit about discussing several patients that he knew to have been abused.In 1886, Freud returned to Vienna and, after opening a private practice specializing in nervous and brain disorders, he married Martha Bernays.“I found in myself a constant love for my mother, and jealousy of my father.He attempted to expel those who disagreed with the movement or even refused to accept certain central aspects of his theory: the most notable examples are Carl Jung*** and Alfred Adler.*** While Freud wrote a stinging attack on both of them in a piece called "On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement," he ostracized the dissidents Otto Gross and Wilhelm Reich by complete silence.Even after having his jaw removed due to malignancy, he continued to smoke until his death on September 23, 1939.Eventually, Freud abandoned the idea of the system unconscious, replacing it with the concept of the Ego, super-ego, and id (discussed below).Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, especially involving the mechanism of repression; his redefinition of sexual desire as mobile and directed towards a wide variety of objects; and his therapeutic technique, especially his understanding of transference in the therapeutic relationship and the presumed value of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires.Males are afraid of castration - losing their phallus or masculinity to another male.Such thoughts and feelings—and associated memories—could not, Freud argued, be banished from the mind, but could be banished from consciousness. Although Freud later attempted to find patterns of repression among his patients in order to derive a general model of the mind, he also observed that individual patients repress different things.As he was leaving Germany, Gestapo forced him to sign a statement that he had been treated respectfully.According to some of his successors, including his daughter Anna Freud, the goal of therapy is to allow the patient to develop a stronger ego; according to others, notably Jacques Lacan, the goal of therapy is to lead the analysand to a full acknowledgement of his or her inability to satisfy the most basic desires.Most of these previously restricted documents have now been declassified and are available to researchers who visit the Library of Congress in Washington, DC.The descriptive unconscious referred to all those features of mental life of which we are not subjectively aware.The system unconscious denoted the idea that when mental processes are repressed, they become organized by principles different from those of the conscious mind, such as condensation and displacement.In his 40s, Freud "had numerous psychosomatic disorders as well as exaggerated fears of dying and other phobias."[3] During this time, Freud was involved in the task of exploring his own dreams, memories and the dynamics of his personality development.He started to hear her mumble words during what he called states of absence.The traditional story, based on Freud's later accounts of this period, is that as a result of his use of this procedure most of his patients in the mid-1890s reported early childhood sexual abuse.essay on freud's defense mechanismsHe switched to putting his patients on a couch and encouraging them to say whatever came into their minds, a practice termed free association.After contracting cancer of the mouth in 1923 at the age of 67, he underwent over 30 operations to treat the disease, and for several years wore a painful prosthesis to seal off his mouth from his nasal cavity.Another important element of psychoanalysis is a relative lack of direct involvement on the part of the analyst, which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts and feelings onto the analyst.Throughout his career, however, he retained the descriptive and dynamic conceptions of the unconscious.Eventually Breuer started to recognize some of the words and wrote them down.He simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind and human behavior, as well as clinical techniques for attempting to help neurotics.Freud wrote to his friend Arnold Zweig: "They left a facsimile of the book with me and if you were here I could should show you the signatures from I. When his colleague Wilhelm Fliess, a nose and throat specialist, suggested that he quit in order to clear up some nasal catarrhs, Freud was unwilling to do so.He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse", meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure.Following the Nazi German Anschluss, Freud fled Austria with his family with the financial help of his patient and friend Princess Marie Bonaparte.The origin of Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Joseph Breuer.Freud experimented with hypnotism with his most hysteric and neurotic patients, but he eventually gave up the practice.He had his name after three Polish kings Zygmunts (Sigismunds): Zygmunt Stary, Zygmunt August and Zygmunt III Vasa.In the early 1890s Freud used a form of treatment based on the one that Breuer had described to him, modified by what he called his "pressure technique".During the 19th century, the dominant trend in Western thought was positivism, which subscribed to the belief that people could ascertain real knowledge concerning themselves and their environment and judiciously exercise control over both.Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object, a process designed by the concept of sublimation.On June 4, 1938, they were allowed across the border into France and then they traveled from Paris to Hampstead, London, England, where they lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens (now the Freud Museum).The concept of the unconscious as proposed by Freud was allegedly groundbreaking in that he proposed that awareness existed in layers and that there were thoughts occurring "below the surface." Nevertheless, as psychologist Jacques Van Rillaer, among others, pointed out, "contrary to what most people believe, the unconscious was not discovered by Freud.Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the dynamics of the mind.He went on to attend the University of Vienna at 17, from 1873 to 1881.of faking her symptoms, Breuer decided to treat her sympathetically, which he did with all of his patients. essay on freud's defense mechanisms Thus boys resent their father (fear of castration) and girls desire theirs.Freud named his new theory the Oedipus complex after the famous Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles.Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is commonly referred to as "the father of psychoanalysis" and his work has been tremendously influential in the popular imagination, popularizing such notions as the unconscious, defense mechanisms, Freudian slips and dream symbolism, while also making a long-lasting impact on fields as diverse as literature, film, Marxist and feminist theories, literary criticism, philosophy and psychology.He used the Oedipus conflict to point out how much he believed that people desire incest and must repress that desire.This is because, for Freud, the unconscious always desires the phallus (penis).Additionally, portions of his personal correspondence and unpublished papers were closely guarded in the Sigmund Freud Archives at the Library of Congress and for many years were made available only to a few members of the inner circle of psychoanalysis.He further argued that, as humans develop, they become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development—first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in emptying his or her bowels), then in the phallic stage.The preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought—that which we could access with a little effort.Freud has been influential in two related but distinct ways.In 1896 Freud posited that the symptoms of 'hysteria' and obsessional neurosis derived from *unconscious* memories of sexual abuse in infancy, and claimed that he had uncovered such incidents for every single one of his current patients (one third of whom were men).Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and thus turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material.However a close reading of his papers and letters from this period indicates that these patients did not report early childhood sexual abuse as he later claimed: rather, he arrived at his findings by analytically inferring the supposed incidents, using a procedure that was heavily dependent on the symbolic interpretation of somatic symptoms.During the late 1890s Freud, who never abandoned his belief in the sexual etiology of neuroses, began to emphasize fantasies built around the Oedipus complex as the primary cause of hysteria and other neurotic symptoms.Freud wrote sarcastically, "I warmly recommend the Gestapo to everyone." In England, in 1938, Freud's longing to be embraced by society as an important scientist was partly realized when two secretaries of the Royal Society brought the book of the Society for Freud to sign. " Freud began smoking at age 24, and smoked cigars for most of his life.Freud actually credits Breuer with the discovery of the psychoanalytical method.Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born into a Jewish family in Príbor (Freiberg in German), Moravia, in the Austrian Empire (now belonging to the Czech Republic).In 1930, Freud was awarded the Goethe Prize by the city of Frankfurt, in recognition of his exceptional qualities as a writer in the German language.He is often rumored to have had an affair later on with his sister-in-law, Minna Bernays (C. Jung alleged as much), and a hotel log dated 13 August 1898 seems to support this allegation.Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is "repression." According to Freud, people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful that people cannot bear them.Through this process, transference, the patient can reenact and resolve repressed conflicts, especially childhood conflicts with (or about) parents. essay on freud's defense mechanisms The goal of Freudian therapy, or psychoanalysis was to bring to consciousness repressed thoughts and feelings.Moreover, Freud observed that the process of repression is itself a non-conscious act (in other words, it did not occur through people willing away certain thoughts or feelings).Little is known of Freud's early life, as he destroyed his personal papers at least twice, once in 1885 and again in 1907.The dynamic unconscious, a more specific construct, referred to mental process and contents which are defensively removed from consciousness as a result of conflictual forces or "dynamics".He also turned to anthropological studies of totemism and argued that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict.He then hypnotized her and repeated the words to her; Breuer found out that the words were associated with her father's illness and death. coined the term 'talk therapy' to describe this process.Freud argued that children then passed through a stage in which they fixated on the mother as a sexual object (known as the Oedipus Complex) but that the child eventually overcame and repressed this desire because of its taboo nature.Thus for Freud, the ideals of the Enlightenment, positivism and rationalism, could be achieved through understanding, transforming, and mastering the unconscious, rather than through denying or repressing it.He requested that his personal physician visit him at his London home for the purpose of helping him end his own life.Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity, characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay gratification.One theory is that he did so because he was not very good at it.In the end, Freud could no longer tolerate the pain associated with his cancer.That was an old family tradition after the Freuds were living in Poland at the years of Zygmunt kings (XVI and XVII).Freud, however, suggested that such declarations of free will are in fact delusions; that we are not entirely aware of what we think and often act for reasons that have little to do with our conscious thoughts.In 1933, as Hitler and the Nazis seized power in Germany, Freud's books were burnt publicly by the SA.Freud's death was by a physician-assisted morphine overdose.(The lesser known Electra complex refers to such a fixation upon the father.) The repressive or dormant latency stage of psychosexual development preceded the sexually mature genital stage of psychosexual development.In 1890, when psychoanalysis was still unheard of, William James, in his monumental treatise on psychology, examined the way Schopenhauer, von Hartmann, Janet, Binet and others had used the term 'unconscious' and 'subconscious'".During this self-analysis, he came to realize the hostility he felt towards his father (Jacob Freud) and "he also recalled his childhood sexual feelings for his mother (Amalia Freud), who was attractive, warm, and protective." After publishing successful books on the unconscious mind in 19, Freud was appointed to a professorship at the University of Vienna, where he began to develop a loyal following.Freud had little tolerance for colleagues who diverged from his psychoanalytic doctrines. essay on freud's defense mechanisms The following has been adapted from the Wikipedia website. essay on freud's defense mechanisms




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