Abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essay - correlation research definition pdf


 

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abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essay

abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essayAbraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essay -When Congress struck down the Missouri Compromise in 1854, Lincoln denounced the idea that settlers in America’s new western territories could now vote to import slave labor.We must also acknowledge that Lincoln personally opposed slavery all his life (even this inescapable truth has been challenged by a smattering of revisionists in recent years).A second unauthorized emancipation proclamation was issued on May 9, 1862, by Maj. Lincoln again issued a public statement revoking the order but urged the slave-holding border states to "adopt a gradual abolishment of slavery." On July 17, 1862, Congress passed the Second Confiscation Act, which declared that slaves held by supporters of the Confederacy who crossed over Union lines were "forever free." Less than a week later, on July 22, 1862, Lincoln surprised his Cabinet by reading a draft Emancipation Proclamation, asking for revisions and refinements to the document.As Lincoln hoped, the Proclamation turned the foreign popular opinion in the favor of the Union and its new anti-slavery cause.Forty-eight copies of the document were signed in June 1864 by Lincoln and donated to the Sanitary Commission, an American Red Cross precursor, which sold the documents to improve conditions in military camps and provide medical care to Union soldiers.Not until July 1862 did Lincoln finally conclude that he could act boldly and broadly: without Congress and without recourse to nonfunctioning courts.President Abraham Lincoln was faced with a monumental challenge during his two terms as Commander-in-chief of the United States: reuniting the shattered halves of the Union.Visiting New Orleans as a young man, he had been horrified by the sight of black men in chains like “fish in a trot line,” as he put it, a vision that tormented him for years.In August 1861, Congress passed the First Confiscation Act, authorizing the confiscation of any property—including slaves—used in the rebellion against the U. When it became clear that Fremont would not revoke or amend the order, Lincoln removed him from command and revoked the order himself.Though Lincoln was still wary of linking abolition to the war and driving the slave-holding border states to support the Confederacy, it became clear to him that popular sentiment in the North had begun to support abolition as one of the purposes of the war.Candidate Lincoln was elected president in 1860 pledging to do nothing to interfere with slavery in the Southern states, where, he acknowledged, the institution was protected by the U. “We must free the slaves,” he confided, “or ourselves be subdued.” Then why did he not order slaves liberated the mo­ment the states defied federal authority?This was his sole purpose in fighting the Civil War—nothing more, nothing less.In Document B Lincoln demonstrates his commitment to the main purpose of the war: reuniting the Union; he places secondary importance on the emancipation of the slaves—this is only important to him because it will help weaken the South.The Emancipation Proclamation continues to be a symbol of equality and social justice. In a letter dated September 11 that was published in Union newspapers, Lincoln ordered Fremont to change his order to conform to the First Confiscation Act, afraid that linking abolition with the war would cause the slave-holding border states to rebel.Then, in the crucible of the 1960s Civil Rights revolution, dissenting voices began offering a different version of the story.On January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, making the abolition of slavery, as well as the preservation of the Union a war aim.As a legislator in Illinois, he became one of the few to sign a resolution condemning slavery.Lincoln fretted too that if he moved too soon, Northern voters might turn against his party and force on Lincoln a hostile Congress unwilling to continue prosecuting the war.Lincoln also freed the slaves to benefit the Union in another important way. This was the Union’s last desperate attempt at recruiting soldiers before it was finally forced to issue the Conscription Act in 1863.This shift in war goals ended any hope that the Confederacy had of receiving political and financial support from anti-slavery countries like France or Britain.abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essayThe original document is held in the National Archives in Washington, D. To read a full transcript of the Emancipation Proclamation, please see Emancipation Proclamation text In one regard, January 1, 1863, was no different than all the other New Year’s Days in recent Washington memory—Civil War notwithstanding.By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln hoped that slaves living on Southern plantations would revolt against their masters, thereby “…weaken[ing] the rebels by drawing off their labor supply” (Document B).But he differed with the overwhelming majority of citizens (and politicians) of the day when he declared, “In the right to eat the bread which his own hands earn,” a black man “is my equal and…the equal of every living man.” Incredible as it seems today, such pronouncements still shocked many mid–19th century Americans.In a war as volatile as the Civil War, a small economic difference like this could tip the scale in the favor of Lincoln and the Union.In these Documents, Lincoln once again demonstrates the importance he places on preserving the Union above all else.He would act not from “the bosom of phi­lanthropy,” as he wryly put it, but on the basis of military necessity, with an order from a commander in chief aimed, at its most basic level, at punishing rebels by utilizing a time-tested weapon of war—confiscating enemy property, in this case, human property. Mc Clellan’s idle army on July 7-10 (the presumptuous commander had advised Lincoln that the war should not be waged to free any slaves), Lincoln concluded that the opposite was true.Slowly but firmly, he wrote “Abraham Lincoln” in large letters at the bottom of the document that declared all slaves in the Confederacy “forever free.” Letting out a burst of relieved laughter, he glanced at his effort and declared, “That will do.” What Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation did—and did not—do has been the subject of heated debate ever since. Or was it merely an acknowledgment that slavery was already dying, thanks to forces beyond the president’s control?However, Lincoln soon realized that freeing the slaves could provide a huge advantage for the North both economically and politically.Lincoln was a political genius because of the way he was able to exploit the Emancipation Proclamation and the freeing of the slaves to work for the Union in so many differing and crucial ways.If my hand trembles when I sign the proclamation, all who examine the document hereafter will say, ‘He hesitated.’” Hesitation was the last thing on his mind.The rebellion had continued, but many doubted until the very last minute that Lincoln would make good his threat. Lincoln, the daughter of a slaveholder, would bewitch her husband into reneging. “I have been shaking hands since 9 o’clock this morning, and my hand is almost paralyzed,” the president lamented.Modern Americans should never forget that above all else, in its own day the Emancipation Proclamation was immensely controversial.Because Lincoln judged that the American people—even those in the loyal states—would defy him.He appealed to the American’s emotions by calling on them to defend “a new birth of freedom” and to ensure “that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth”.Virginia had already seceded, but Lincoln could not afford to lose the next slave state to the north, Maryland. C., would become a capital city trapped inside an enemy country.However, Lincoln was flexible enough to accommodate changes to the war plan if they would help achieve the ultimate goal of preserving the Union.Then all would be lost anyway: democracy, the Union and any promise, ever, of eradicating slavery.In the words of one contemporary, nothing so revolutionary had happened in America since the Revolutionary War itself.And perhaps that is why, however long and arduously he labored to get its timing just right, his order triggered so much anger—putting Lincoln’s political party on the defensive and inspiring fears that white troops might refuse to fight to free black slaves.One thing is certain: Lincoln himself believed his order would change the course of both the Civil War and the peace that would follow. abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essay First of all, it instilled nationalism in the hearts of many Americans.But popular culture ultimately embraced Lincoln as a liberator, and for nearly a century most historians agreed he deserved the title.Towering above the throng was Abraham Lincoln, patiently greeting visitors by the hundreds, “his blessed pump handle working steadily,” marveled journalist Noah Brooks. the president quietly slipped out of the East Room and walked upstairs to his office (now the Lincoln Bedroom) on the second floor. Seward, along with Seward’s son Frederick, who served as his father’s private secretary, and a few members of Lincoln’s staff.Now, at last, he would sign the most important order of his administration, perhaps of the century: the Emancipation Proclamation.But the law suffered from fatal flaws: It left unclear precisely how to define traitors, and assigned judgment to the federal courts, which no longer operated in the areas affected by the bill. Lincoln signaled his instinct for freedom by signing a D. compensated emancipation act on April 16, 1862, although he again infuriated abolitionists by waiting a long time before he gave his approval.He took a further risk denouncing the Su­preme Court’s 1857 Dred Scott decision, under which blacks were relegated to noncitizen status forever. But after more than a year of rebellion, President Lincoln reached the conclusion that the only way to restore the Union was to wage war not only against Confederate armies but also against the Confederacy’s secret weapon: free home-front slave labor.The South had long counted on aid from England and France.Consequently he who molds public sentiment goes deeper than he who enacts statutes or pronounces decisions.” Until 1862 Lincoln was not prepared to pronounce his decision because he had not yet molded public sentiment.Before he became president, he did not yet think blacks should be permitted to vote or to serve on juries, much less intermarry with whites.Perhaps its most significant immediate effect was that it, for the first time, it officially placed the U. government against the "peculiar institution" of slavery, thereby placing a barrier between the South and its recognition by European nations that had outlawed slavery.Lincoln needed a decisive Union victory to lend credence to the proclamation and got one at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, which had ended Confederate general Robert E. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln signed the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which informed both the Confederacy and the Union of his intention to free all persons held as slaves in the rebellious states.Several articles within the Confederate States’ Constitution specifically protected slavery within the Confederacy, but some articles of the U. Constitution also protected slavery—the Emancipation Proclamation drew a clearer distinction between the two.He freed the slaves because he knew it would directly benefit the Union.Solemnly, Lincoln sat down at his accustomed spot at the head of the table.“Public sentiment is everything,” he had declared during the 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates.Congress did pass, and Lincoln signed, two Confiscation Acts authorizing the seizure of property held by Rebel traitors—including slaves.Such criticisms, however, ignore the tremendous impact the Proclamation had in its own time, a far more accurate yardstick than hindsight.Returning to Washington after a frustrating visit to Maj. “Things had gone on from bad to worse,” he lamented later, “until I felt that we had reached the end of our rope…that we had about played our last card and must change our tactics, or lose the game.” Lincoln probably began writing a first draft of an Emancipation order on board the steamboat returning him to the capital.Lincoln realized this in 1862 when he said that “slavery is the root of the rebellion” (Document B).Not only did issuing the Emancipation Proclamation weaken the South, but it also strengthened the Union government in many ways. abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essay Any escaped slaves who managed to get behind the lines of the advancing Union armies and any who lived in areas subsequently captured by those armies no longer had to be returned because, in the words of the proclamation, they were "thenceforeward, and forever free." Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation primarily as a war measure.Under political pressure, he later appointed Fremont to the newly formed Mountain Department in West Virginia. This proclamation not only declared to be free all slaves in areas of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, it authorized the arming of able-bodied blacks.Many northerners were driven to actively participate in the war effort after hearing Lincoln’s emotionally charged Gettysburg Address (Document C).Ushers threw open the doors of the White House around 11 a.m., and ordinary citizens surged inside to mingle with dignitaries.Lincoln was successful at completing the main goal of his job as President: keeping the United States united.“The South had fair warning that if they did not return…I would strike at this pillar of their strength,” Lincoln insisted. Was it a thunderbolt aimed at correcting generations of inhumanity?Economically, the South came to rely on slave labor so much that their entire economy would collapse without it.“It is my conviction,” Lincoln insisted when he heard the criticism of his sluggishness, “that had the proclamation been issued even six months earlier than it was, public sentiment would not have sustained it.” He may have been right.Lincoln freed the slaves to weaken the Southern resistance, strengthen the Federal government, and encourage free blacks to fight in the Union army, thus preserving the Union.However, many argued that the proclamation didn’t actually free any slaves or destroy the institution of slavery itself—it still only applied to states in active rebellion, not to the slave-holding border states or to rebel areas already under Union control.In this speech Lincoln used the anti-slavery fight as a call to defend the Union, which was his main ambition and purpose in the Civil War. Recruiting posters, like the one in Document D, show the Union’s attempts to fill its regiments with black soldiers as the number of white volunteers dwindled.See emancipation proclamation text Emancipation Proclamation summary: The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, as the country entered the third year of the Civil War. shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free"—but it applied only to states designated as being in rebellion, not to the slave-holding border states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri or to areas of the Confederacy that had already come under Union control.Lincoln had ample reason to fear that if he acted against slavery precipitately, he would at the very least lose crucial support in the vital Border States, which he desperately needed to keep from joining the Confederacy.As promised in the preliminary proclamation, 100 days later, on January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.True, Lincoln did not then (or perhaps ever) believe in perfect social equality for African Americans.As President of the United States, Lincoln upheld his office by keeping the preservation of the Union as his top goal throughout the Civil War. Although Lincoln faced some opposition from members of the Democratic Party, who refused to “fight to free negroes” (Document E), he knew the Union’s need for soldiers was becoming desperate.The five-page document declared that slaves in the rebel states were free, provided them with the support of the U. government—including the Army and Navy, declared that freed slaves should be paid a wage, urged freed slaves to abstain from violence except in self-defense, and publically declared that all suitable freed men would be accepted into the armed services to fight in the war.President Lincoln once said that if he could save the Union without freeing any slave he would do it.And in his single term in the House of Representatives, he opposed the American war against Mexico, largely because its Democratic supporters hoped with conquest to acquire new Southern territory ripe for slavery.By “freeing” the slaves in the Confederate States, Lincoln encouraged Northern blacks to contribute to the war effort. As Thomas Buckner put it, the blacks were “marching off to the call of the government as if they were sharing all the blessings of the most favored citizens” (Document F). abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essay A second unauthorized emancipation proclamation was issued on May 9, 1862, by Maj. Lincoln again issued a public statement revoking the order but urged the slave-holding border states to "adopt a gradual abolishment of slavery." On July 17, 1862, Congress passed the Second Confiscation Act, which declared that slaves held by supporters of the Confederacy who crossed over Union lines were "forever free." Less than a week later, on July 22, 1862, Lincoln surprised his Cabinet by reading a draft Emancipation Proclamation, asking for revisions and refinements to the document. abraham lincoln issuing the emancipation proclamation essay




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