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beloved rememory essays

beloved rememory essaysBeloved rememory essays - A Literature of Their Own: British Women Novelists from Bronte to Lessing. “Toni Morrison’s Beloved: Remembering the Body as Historical Text.” Comparative American Identities: Race, Sex and Nationality in the Modern Text. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 7.1(1981): 13-35. “History, Memry and Languages in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Feminist Criticism: Theory and Practice. “Writing ‘Race’ and the Difference It Makes.” “Race,” Writing and Difference. Approaches to Teaching the Novels of Toni Morrison. Race, Gender, and Desire: Narrative Strategies in the Fiction of Toni Cade Bambara, Toni Morrison, and Alice Walker. “Song of Solomon: Morrison’s Rejection of Rank’s Monomyth and Feminism.” Studies in American Fiction 15 (1987): 13-24. Engendering Romance: Women Writers and the Hawthorne Tradtion, 1850-1990. “Prejudice, Pride and the Perils of Parody.” Financial Times. Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradtion. New Dimensions of Spirituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of the Novels of Toni Morrison. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism. “Interview with Toni Morrison.” Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. By Toril Moi.)。台北:駱駝,1995。 陳慧劍。《證嚴法師的慈濟世界──花蓮慈濟功德會的緣起與成長》。台北:佛教慈濟文化志業中心,1988。 曉征、平林 譯。《女權主義理論:從邊緣到中心》。(Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. “ An Interview with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism. “Hagar’s Mirror: Self and Identity.” The Voices of Toni Morrison. 54 第二節 〈殺夫〉:民間傳說為父權幫凶………………………………………70 第三節 《迷園》:民間傳說的意義翻轉………………………………………94 第四節 《自傳的小說》:民間傳說與建構女性經驗史 ……………………120 第四章 莫莉森小說的民間傳說及策略運用──女性經驗與族群記憶……143 第一節 莫莉森小說相關背景回顧…………………………………………143 第二節 《摯愛》:民間傳說與族群記憶……………………………………156 第三節 《所羅門之歌》:民間傳說與經驗傳承……………………………181 第四節 《蘇拉》:民間傳說與女性聯盟……………………………………207 第五章 結語……………………………………………………………………218 參考書目……………………………………………………………………………224 參考書目 一、英文部分: Abel, Elizabeth. “An Interview with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. “Ties that Bind.” The Women’s Review of Books 5.6 (1988): 4-5. “In the Realm of Responsibility: A Conversation with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. beloved rememory essays “ An Interview with Toni Morrison: Hessian Radio Network, Frankfurt, West Germany.” Critical Essays on Toni Morrison. Black American Women’s Writing: A Quilt of Many Colours. By Pamela Abbott and Claire Wallace)。台北:巨流,1995。 高天生。《台灣小說與小說家》。台北:前衛,1994。 奚密。〈黑暗之形:談《暗夜》中的象徵〉。《中外文學》15.9(1987.3):130-148。 陶五柳。《釋昭慧法師》。台北:大村,1995。 康原。〈小說中的象徵意義:小論李昂的《殺夫》〉。《文學界》10(1984.5):40─45。 郭士行。〈從語用談李昂的《殺夫》〉。《女性主義與中國文學》。鍾慧玲主編。東海中文系審訂。台北:里仁,1997。439─456。 張小虹。〈當神還是女人的時候〉。《女性主義經典》。顧燕翎,鄭至慧編。台北:女書文化,1999。105-110。 ──。《性別越界:女性主義文學理論與批評》。台北:聯合文學,1995。 ──。〈性別的美學? “The Ghosts of Slavery: Historical Recovery in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” African American Review 26.3 (1992): 395-408. Claiming the Heritage: African-American Women Novelists and History. “’Talkin’ That Talk.” “Race,” Writing and Difference. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses.” Lenin and Philosophy. “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book.” Diacritics (Summer 1987): 65-81. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. By bell hooks)著。南京:江蘇人民出版社,2001。 鍾慧玲主編,東海中文系審訂。《女性主義與中國文學》。台北:里仁,1997。 簡瑛瑛主編。《認同? “Narrative possibilities at Play in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Melus 17.4 (1991-92): 91-103. “Fleshly Ghosts and Ghostly Flesh: The Word and the Body in Beloved.” Studies in American Fiction 19.2 (1991): 189-201. “Song of Solomon: To Ride the Air.” Black American Literature Forum 16 (1982): 64-70. “Pariahs and Community.” Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. “Beloved’s Narrative: Writing Mother’s Milk.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 11.1 (1992): 1-21. “Memory and Mother Love in Morrison’s Beloved.” American imago 47.1 (1990): 1-21. “Beloved: A Spiritual.” Callaloo 13(1990): 516-525. “From Orality to Literacy: Oral Memory in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” New Essays on Song of Soloman. Supernatural Forces: Belief, Difference, and Power in Contemporary Works by Ethnic Women. --談李昂小說《迷園》〉。《自由時報》 1995年12月19日: 副刊。 ──。〈《迷園》中的性與政治〉。鄭明娳編。《當代台灣女性文學論》。台北:時報出版,1993。69-107。 ──。〈李昂與女性之謎〉。《從四0年代到九0年代-兩岸三邊華文研討會論文集》。台北:時報,1994。 善德興。《銘刻與再現》。台北:麥田,2000。 葉石濤。《台灣文學史綱》。高雄:文學界,1987。 葉文可譯。《法輪常轉: 女性靈修之路》(Turning The Wheel: American Women Creating the New Buddhism. “Toni Morrison Chafes at Being Labeled ‘Role Model’.” Charlotte Observer 2 Sep. 摘要 本論文主要的關切重點是在台灣女作家李昂(1952--)和非裔美籍女作家莫莉森(Toni Morrison, 1931--)的小說中,民間傳說如何被策略性地運用:這兩位作者或將民間傳說作為父權主流意識型態的幫凶,對它加以撻伐控訴,進而扭曲詮釋、重新定義;或者利用民間傳說作為一種來自傳統文化的力量,為族群和女性重新尋取記憶以介入歷史、爭奪發言權、進而建構女性角度出發之歷史的工具。這兩位第三世界女作家的作品中呈現出民間傳說可載舟(為主流意識型態服務)可覆舟(與主流意識型態對抗甚至加以顛覆)的特性,至於它究竟是屬於主流意識型態的一部份,或是可以為女性主義者挪用而呈現為對抗主流的論述,則端看個別作家如何策略運用。 筆者回顧了第三世界/後殖民女性主義理論的特色,並討論其他各派女性主義思想與本文關注焦點之間的關係,探究女性深受壓迫的基本原因,同時也介紹了台灣民間信仰背景和非裔美籍黑人的民間信仰與口述傳統。由於筆者以民間信仰與主流意識型態的互動為重要關注點,所以在探討兩位女作家的作品中對於民間信仰的運用時,筆者認為李昂除了呈現外在壓迫,也深入探究思考模式的箝制,試圖找出民間信仰與傳說和主流意識型態如何掛勾?而女性又應該如何跳脫陷阱,產生自覺、甚至加以轉化、挪用,在討論性別問題時也兼及台灣社會中的省籍族裔問題。基本上李昂將民間信仰視為父權意識型態的共謀,但是女性和其他弱勢者可以從父權邏輯中找到縫隙,予以顛覆和重新詮釋。而莫莉森則利用自己族群有別於白人的民間傳說及信仰傳統,和主流歷史對抗,從邊緣發聲,為自己族群和女性經驗寫歷史。她期待以黑人傳統的民間信仰,對抗白人霸權的力量,同時也探討黑人社群中的價值觀和性別問題。這兩位作者對民間傳說與信仰的運用方式及目的雖有不同,但同樣顯示了對抗主流意識型態的控制,以及為自己族群和女性發言的權力之爭奪,是目前弱勢團體急於面對的課題。 本文除了針對各個文本加以分析並提出相關議題的討論外,筆者對女性作家對民間信仰的運用有正面期許,也期待本文可以拋磚引玉,吸引更多人注意民間信仰與傳說對女性建立自主性的重要影響。希望透過女作家對民間信仰這種強制性思考模式的改變詮釋,讓女性思想得到解放,配合其他經濟社會的改革,能使女性和其他弱勢族群在面對主流歷史或論述箝制時,有翻轉、重新詮釋的可能。 目錄 論文摘要 謝辭 第一章 前言………………………………………………………………………1 第一節 研究緣起及目的………………………………………………………1 第二節 研究背景及論文架構…………………………………………………9 第二章 第三世界女性主義與民間信仰…………………………………………13 第一節 性別、族裔、女性主義………………………………………………13 第二節 性別與宗教:女性神學 …………………………………………… beloved rememory essays Black Women Writers: 1950-1980, A Critical Evaluation . “ Say Make ME, Remake Me: Toni Morrison and the Reconstruction of African Amercian History.” Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Fingering the Jagged Grain: Tradition and Form in Recent Black Fiction. Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. Black Women, Writing and Identity: Migrations of the Subject. “ Motives of Folktale: Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Liberating Voices: Oral tradtion in African American Literature. “Violence in the Other Country: China as Crisis, Spectacle, and Women.” Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. “Eruptions of Funk: Historizing Toni Morrison.” Black American Literature Forum 16 (1982). Specifying: Black Women Writing the American Experience. By Sandy Boucher.)。台北:立緒,1997。 傅偉勳等著。《1996佛學研究論文集2─當代宗教理論的省思》。台北﹕佛光,1996。 楊照。《文學、社會與歷史想像:戰後文學史散論》。台北:聯合文學,1995。 楊澤 編。《從四0年代到九0年代-兩岸三邊華文小說研討會論文集》。台北:時報,1994。 董芳苑。《探討台灣民間信仰》。台北:常民文化,1996。 廖咸浩。〈「只可」哥哥,「害得」弟弟──《迷園》與〈第凡內早餐〉對身分「國族(主義)」化〉的商榷〉。《書寫台灣》。周英雄、劉紀蕙編。台北:麥田,2000。 ──。《愛與解構-當代台灣文學評論與文化觀察》。台北:聯合文學,1995。 廖朝陽。〈歷史、交換、對向聲──閱讀李昂的《迷園》與《北港人人插》〉。《書寫台灣》。周英雄、劉紀蕙編。台北:麥田,2000。 廖朝陽,李鴻瓊編。〈《迷園》研究檔案──專輯〉。《中外文學》28.2(1999年7月)。 蔡源煌。〈女性作家的天空─蔡源煌與李昂的對話〉。《台北評論》131(1988.1.10)。 劉玉華。〈解析《迷園》的政治與性別認同〉。《輔大中研所學刊》6(1996.6)。 劉亮雅。〈面對奴隸制度的鬼魂:佟妮? Mohanty, Chandra Talpade, Ann Russo and Lourdes Torres. “Classical Themes in Song of Solomon.” Helos 10 (1983): 161-170. “Folklore and Community in Song of Solomon.” MELUS 7.3 (1980): 77-82. Women and Chinese Modernity: The Politics of Reading between West and East. “Maternity and Rememory: Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Representations of Motherhood. Donna Bassin, Honey Margaret, and Kaplan Meryle Mahrer. “Remodeling the Model Home in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Beloved.” American Literature 64.4 (1992): 785-805. “Haunted by Their Nightmare.” The New York Times Book Review. “Behind the Making of The Black Book.” Black World (Feb. The Resisting Reader: A Feminist Approach to American Fiction. The World of Toni Morrison: Explorations in Literary Criticism. 28 第三節 性別與民間信仰:台灣民間信仰與傳說……………………………33 第四節 族裔與民間信仰:黑人口述傳統 ………………………………… The Mother/Daughter Plot: Narrative, Psychoanalysis, Feminism. “Nobel Lecture, 1993.” World Literature Today 68 (1994): 5-8. “ A Conversation with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. beloved rememory essays “The Interdependence of Men and Women’s Individuation.” New Dimensions of Spirituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of the Novels of Toni Morrison. “Marx’s Althusser: Toward a Politics of Literary Theory.” Diacritics 12.1(1982). “Four Hundred Years of Silence: Myth, History, and Motherhood in Toni Morrison’s Beloved. "The Laugh of the Medusa." Signs 1.4 (1976): 875-93. J.: Princeton UP, 1981 Emanuel, James A and Theodore L. 政治:當代台灣女性主義文學研究〉。《女性主義與中國文學》。鍾慧玲主編,東海中文系審訂。台北:里仁,1997。 張京媛主編。《當代女性主義文學批評》。北京大學出版社,1992。 ──。《後殖民理論與文化認同》。台北:麥田,1995。 ──。《後殖民理論與文化批評》 (The Post-Colonial Theory and Cultural Criticism.)。北京:北大出版社,1999。 張京媛等譯。《文學批評術語》(Critical Terms for Literary Study. Frank Centricchia and Thomas Mc Laughlin)。香港:牛津,1994。 張惠娟。<當代台灣女性小說的覺醒與徬徨>。當代台灣女性文學研討會,1992年12月25-27日。 梅家玲。《性別論述與台灣小說》。台北:麥田,2000。 許玉燕。〈「重塑歷史」的真相─讀李昂《自傳的小說》〉,2002。 ( 程風。〈我想拔錯了--說《迷園》中的花木〉。《當代》73(1992): 139-141。 彭小研 。〈女作家的情慾書寫與政治論述─解讀《迷園》〉。《中外文學》24.5(1995): 72-92。 ──。〈李昂小說中的語言──由〈花季〉到《迷園》〉《女性主義與中國文學》。鍾慧玲主編,東海中文系審訂。台北:里仁,1997。263-270。 彭瑞金。《台灣新文學運動四十年》。台北:自立晚報,1991。 賀安慰。《台灣當代短篇小說中的女性描寫》。台北:文史哲,1989。 黃千芳。《臺灣當代女性小說中的女性處境》。新竹:清大中文所碩士論文,1996。 黃秋芳。〈給不知名的收信人:-李昂的〈一封未寄的情書〉〉。《自由青年》6 (1987.9)。 黃毓秀。〈被虐癖的女人? “Talk with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. “Genealogical Archaeology or the Quest for Legacy in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Critical Essays on Toni Morrison. “‘The Disremembered and Unaccounted For’: History, Myth, and Magic.” The Voices of Toni Morrison. Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. “The Promised Land.” The New York Times Book Review. “Flying as Symbol and Legend in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye, Sula, and Song of Solomon.” CLA Journal 27 (1983). “ Myths as Unable Past.” Folk Roots and Mythic Wings in Sarah Orne Jewett and Toni Morrison: The Cultural Function of Narrative. Self-Discovery and Authority in Afro-American Narrative. Inspiring Influences: Tradition, Revision, and Afro-American Women’s Novels. “Selfhood and Community: Psychoanalysis and Discourse in Beloved.” Modern Fiction Studies 39.3໿.4(1993): 669-87. Feminist Literary Criticism: Explorations in Theory. “Nameless Ghosts: Possession and Dispossession in Beloved.” Studies in American Fiction 17.2 (1989): 157-67. “Toni Morrison’s Ghost: The Beloved who Is Not Beloved.” Studies in American Fiction 18.1 (1990): 17-26. “Three Women’s Text and a Critique of Imperialism.” Critical Inquiry 12.1(1985). ”A Conversation: Gloria Naylor and Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. “Self, Society, and Myth in Toni Morrison’s Fiction.” Modern Critical Views: Toni Morrison. beloved rememory essays Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 7.1(1981): 13-35. beloved rememory essays




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