Cause and effect essay on drinking alcohol - correlation research definition pdf









cause and effect essay on drinking alcohol

cause and effect essay on drinking alcoholCause and effect essay on drinking alcohol -The body turns to the food and forgets about the alcohol for the time being, thus delaying the hangover and possibly alleviating it.Berton Roueché, in a 1960 article on alcohol for , quoted a prominent fifteenth-century German physician, Hieronymus Brunschwig, on the range of physical ills curable by brandy: head sores, pallor, baldness, deafness, lethargy, toothache, mouth cankers, bad breath, swollen breasts, short-windedness, indigestion, flatulence, jaundice, dropsy, gout, bladder infections, kidney stones, fever, dog bites, and infestation with lice or fleas.Many people advise you to eat a heavy meal, with lots of protein and fats, before or while drinking.Nic van Oudtshoorn’s “The Hangover Handbook” (1997) thoughtfully provides a recipe for an emetic: mix mustard powder with water.Others are herbal compounds, featuring such ingredients as ginseng, milk thistle, borage, and extracts of prickly pear, artichoke, and guava leaf. Five years ago, there was a flurry in the press over a new O. (Wiese and his colleagues, in their prickly-pear experiment, provided music so that the subjects could dance, as at a party.) Ideally, there should also be a large sample—many subjects.There are laws against drunk driving, but not against driving with a hangover. Kingsley Amis, who was, in his own words, one of the foremost drunks of his time, and who wrote three books on drinking, described this phenomenon as “the metaphysical hangover”: “When that ineffable compound of depression, sadness (these two are not the same), anxiety, self-hatred, sense of failure and fear for the future begins to steal over you, start telling yourself that what you have is a hangover. The severity of a hangover depends, of course, on how much you drank the night before, but that is not the only determinant.(An American philosophy professor: “Have breakfast at Denny’s.” An English teen-ager: “Eat two Mc Donald’s hamburgers. Alcohol researchers: stay away from coffee—it’s a diuretic and will make you more dehydrated.) Germans eat pickled herring; the Japanese turn to pickled plums; the Vietnamese drink a wax-gourd juice.Vivian, said to be the patron saint of the hung over. The most widely used over-the-counter remedy is no doubt aspirin. agents who wanted to stay sober while getting their contacts drunk and prying information out of them. It is true that succinic acid”—a key ingredient of RU-21—“was tested at the Russian Academy of Sciences, including secret laboratories that worked for the K. A team of scientists attempting to review the literature on hangover cures were able to assemble only fifteen articles, and then they had to throw out all but eight on methodological grounds.Meanwhile, the body, to break down the alcohol, is releasing chemicals that may be more toxic than alcohol itself; these would result in nausea and other symptoms.If you took other drugs as well, your hangover may be worse. In general, darker drinks, such as red wine and whiskey, have higher levels of congeners—impurities produced by the fermentation process, or added to enhance flavor—than do light-colored drinks such as white wine, gin, and vodka.A group of airplane pilots given simulated flight tests after a night’s drinking put in substandard performances.Kingsley Amis suggests taking Underberg bitters, a highly alcoholic digestive: “The resulting mild convulsions and cries of shock are well worth witnessing.Then there are your own characteristics—for example, your drinking pattern.Mothers displayed “impaired nest-building.” Many people will know how these mice felt.And, in keeping with the Jews-don’t-drink rule, Hebrew didn’t even have one word until recently.Advil, or ibuprofen, and Alka-Seltzer—there is a special formula for hangovers, Alka-Seltzer Wake-Up Call—are probably close runners-up. According to the reports, this wonder drug was the product of twenty-five years of painstaking research by the Russian Academy of Sciences, which developed it for K. During the Cold War, we were told, the formula was a state secret, but in 1999 it was declassified. There have been more studies in recent years, but historically this is not a subject that has captured scientists’ hearts. (Somehow this is not reassuring.) The acid test, however, is in clinical trials, with human beings, and these are complicated.Similarly, automobile drivers, the morning after, get low marks on simulated road tests. You have not suffered a minor brain lesion, you are not all that bad at your job, your family and friends are not leagued in a conspiracy of barely maintained silence about what a shit you are, you have not come at last to see life as it really is.” Some people are unable to convince themselves of this.The same can be said of certain non-food recommendations, such as exercise. So it has that glamour thing.”, reported that in the preceding thirty-five years more than forty-seven hundred articles on alcohol intoxication had been published, but that only a hundred and eight of these dealt with hangover.Then they crash to the floor and have to make awkward phone calls in the morning.Then the experts at the Academy of the Hebrew Language, in Tel Aviv, decided that such a term was needed, so they made one up: echoes a usage of Jeremiah’s, in Lamentations , which the King James Bible translates as “My bowels are troubled.”) There is a biochemical basis for Jewish abstinence.cause and effect essay on drinking alcoholAll that costs money, and researchers do not pay out of pocket.If Russians favor pickle juice, they are probably right to, because their drink is vodka: “Vodka is a very pure alcohol.If you have “bed spins,” sleep with one foot on the floor. The list-topping recommendation, apart from another go at the water cure, is the greasy-meal cure.Finally, the alcohol has produced inflammation, which in turn causes the white blood cells to flood the bloodstream with molecules called cytokines.Therefore, they, like the East Asians, have a low tolerance for alcohol. The old faithful in this category is the Bloody Mary, but books on curing hangovers—I have read three, and that does not exhaust the list—describe more elaborate potions, often said to have been invented in places like Cap d’Antibes by bartenders with names like Jean-Marc.Hangovers are probably as old as alcohol use, which dates back to the Stone Age.It doesn’t have the congeners that you find, for example, in whiskey in North America.Unjustly, habitually heavy drinkers seem to have milder hangovers. A woman who matches drinks with a man is going to get drunk faster than he, partly because she has less body water than he does, and less of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol.They divert the body’s attention away from coping with the alcohol to coping with the spices, which are also a toxin.The Russians drink a lot of water with their vodka, and that combats the dehydration. It’s salty, so they’ll drink more water, and that’s what they need.”Many hangover cures—the soups, the greasy breakfast—are comfort foods, and that, apart from any sworn-by ingredients, may be their chief therapeutic property, but some other remedies sound as though they were devised by the witches in “Macbeth.” Kingsley Amis recommended a mixture of Bovril and vodka. Such items suggest that what some hungover people are seeking is not so much relief as atonement. But no, what those scientists discovered, really by accident, was a way to prevent hangover.” (Like many other O. “It flies off the shelves there.” In the United States, it is big with the Hollywood set: “For every film festival—Sundance, the Toronto Film Festival—we get calls asking us to send them RU-21 for parties.They feel that they should drink with their Western colleagues.A recently favored antidote, both in Asia and in the West, is sports drinks, taken either the morning after or, more commonly, at the party itself.Additionally, in many times and places, alcohol was one of the few safe things to drink. Some words for hangover, like ours, refer prosaically to the cause: the Egyptians say they are “still drunk,” the Japanese “two days drunk,” the Chinese “drunk overnight.” The Swedes get “smacked from behind.” But it is in languages that describe the effects rather than the cause that we begin to see real poetic power.the miseries regularly inflicted on humankind, some are so minor and yet, while they last, so painful that one wonders how, after all this time, a remedy cannot have been found. One attraction is alcohol’s power to disinhibit—to allow us, at last, to tell off our neighbor or make an improper suggestion to his wife. Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more.” It works, but then, in the morning, a new misery presents itself.Chilies are readily available in Mexico, peanut butter in Africa. Neuman also pointed out that local cures will reflect the properties of local brews.But thereafter a comforting glow supervenes.” Many people, however, simply drink some more of what they had the night before.In Africa, the same purpose is served by eating peanut butter.Many Jews—fifty per cent, in one estimate—carry a variant gene for alcohol dehydrogenase. When you ask people, worldwide, how to deal with a hangover, their first answer is usually the hair of the dog.Those still able to consider such a question are advised, again, to consume buckets of water, and also to take some Vitamin C.When you get home, is there anything you can do before going to bed? cause and effect essay on drinking alcohol Jones’s theory is that the liver, in processing alcohol, first addresses itself to ethanol, which is the alcohol proper, and then moves on to methanol, a secondary ingredient of many wines and spirits.Application of the hair of the dog may sound like nothing more than a way of getting yourself drunk enough so that you don’t notice you have a hangover, but, according to Wayne Jones, of the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, the biochemistry is probably more complicated than that.The ancient Egyptians, who, we are told, made seventeen varieties of beer, believed that their god Osiris invented this agreeable beverage.Hence the heavy traffic to the rest rooms at bars and parties.The Poles, reportedly, experience a “howling of kittens.” My favorites are the Danes, who get “carpenters in the forehead.” In keeping with the saying about the Eskimos’ nine words for snow, the Ukrainians have several words for hangover.Scientists haven’t yet found all the reasons for this network of woes, but they have proposed various causes.Salvadorans wake up “made of rubber,” the French with a “wooden mouth” or a “hair ache.” The Germans and the Dutch say they have a “tomcat,” presumably wailing.If scientists do not have a cure for cancer, that makes sense. Alcohol may also persuade us that we have found the truth about life, a comforting experience rarely available in the sober hour. A hangover peaks when alcohol that has been poured into the body is finally eliminated from it—that is, when the blood-alcohol level returns to zero.After a few drinks with Red Bull, you’re drunk but you don’t know it, and therefore you may engage in high-risk behaviors—driving, going home with a questionable companion—rather than passing out quietly in your chair.They buried their dead with supplies of beer for use in the afterlife.An English manual, Andrew Irving’s “How to Cure a Hangover” (2004), devotes almost a hundred pages to hair-of-the-dog recipes, including the Suffering Bastard (gin, brandy, lime juice, bitters, and ginger ale); the Corpse Reviver (Pernod, champagne, and lemon juice); and the Thomas Abercrombie (two Alka-Seltzers dropped into a double shot of tequila).If you can’t do that, at least drink a glass of milk.Among the young, one damage-control measure is the ancient Roman method, induced vomiting.One is withdrawal, which would bring on the tremors and also sweating. Alcohol interferes with the secretion of the hormone that inhibits urination.They depend on funding institutions—typically, universities, government agencies, and foundations. K.’d by an ethics committee, and such committees’ ethics may stop short of getting people drunk.But hangover symptoms are not just physical; they are cognitive as well.What, besides alcohol, did you consume at that party?Proponents of this strategy tell you to ask for a glass of water with every drink you order, and then make yourself chug-a-lug the water before addressing the drink.As for the non-alcoholic means of combatting hangover, these fall into three categories: before or while drinking, before bed, and the next morning.Needless to say, this is a hazard, and not just for those at the wheel. Amis described the opening of Kafka’s “Metamorphosis,” with the hero discovering that he has been changed into a bug, as the best literary representation of a hangover. cause and effect essay on drinking alcohol My Ukrainian informant described his morning-after protocol for a vodka hangover as follows: “two shots of vodka, then a cigarette, then another shot of vodka.” A Japanese source suggested wearing a sake-soaked surgical mask.The other most frequent before-and-during recommendation is water, lots of it.Adult males wouldn’t socialize with young males new to their cage.If at that point you pour in more alcohol, the body will switch back to ethanol processing.As for the differences among the many food recommendations, Neuman said that any country’s hangover cure, like the rest of its cultural practices, is an adaptation to the environment.Almost forty per cent of East Asians have a variant, less efficient form of aldehyde dehydrogenase, another enzyme necessary for alcohol processing.Many of the cures probably work, she said, on the same distraction principle as the hair of the dog: “Take the spicy foods, for example.Apparently, cytokines are the source of the aches and pains and lethargy that, when our bodies are attacked by a flu virus—and likewise, perhaps, by alcohol—encourage us to stay in bed rather than go to work, thereby freeing up the body’s energy for use by the white cells in combatting the invader.With vodka you are just going to have pure-alcohol effects, and one of the most important of those is dehydration. In Russia, I’ve seen people falling under the table plenty of times—they drink differently over there—and if they took a few of these pills they were able to get up and walk around, and maybe have a couple more drinks. remedies, RU-21 is best taken before or while drinking, not the next morning.) Asians love the product, Chiaberi says.Another egg-based cure is the prairie oyster, which involves vinegar, Worcestershire sauce, and a raw egg yolk to be consumed whole. A reporter at the “Drink a six-pack of Coke.” Others suggest fruit juice. “Very soothing.”Elsewhere on the international front, many people in Asia and the Near East take strong tea. The fact that all of the above involve tripe may mean something.Therefore, they start showing signs of trouble after just a few sips—they flush dramatically—and they get drunk fast.They have a secret ingredient for hangovers.”) Spicy foods, especially Mexican, are popular, along with eggs, as in the Denny’s breakfast. Moroccans say to chew cumin seeds; Andeans, coca leaves. An ex-Soviet ballet dancer told me, “Pickle juice or a shot of vodka or pickle juice with a shot of vodka.”Many folk cures for hangovers are soups: in Georgia. Nevertheless, people throughout time have found what seemed to them good reason for recourse to alcohol.Because methanol breaks down into formic acid, which is highly toxic, it is during this second stage that the hangover is most crushing.So you have new problems—with your stomach, with your esophagus, with your respiration—rather than the problem with the headache, or that you are going to the washroom every five minutes.” The high-fat and high-protein meals operate in the same way, she said.Koreans drink a bowl of water with honey, presumably to head off the hypoglycemia.Apparently, your genes also have a vote, as does your gene pool.The resulting dehydration seems to trigger the thirst and lethargy.Additional procedures said to be effective are an intravenous saline drip and kidney dialysis, which, apart from their lack of appeal, are not readily available. Amazon will sell you a refrigeratable eye mask, an aromatherapy inhaler, and a vinyl statue of St. If the formula was developed to keep your head clear, how come so many reports said that it didn’t suppress the effects of alcohol? When I put this question to Emil Chiaberi, a co-founder of RU-21’s manufacturer, Spirit Sciences, in California, he answered, “No, no, no. And the research that has been published is often weak.(Tylenol, or acetaminophen, should not be used, because alcohol increases its toxicity to the liver.) Also commonly recommended are Vitamin C and B-complex vitamins. In recent years, pharmaceutical companies have come up with more specialized formulas: Chaser, No Hang, Booz Ease, Party Smart, Sob’r-K Hangover Stopper, Hangover Prevention Formula, and so on. remedies aim to boost biochemicals that help the body deal with toxins. Manuela Neuman, in lab tests, found that milk-thistle extract, which is an ingredient in No Hang and Hangover Helper, does protect cells from damage by alcohol. Which is curious, because anyone who discovered a widely effective hangover cure would make a great deal of money. Lab tests with cell samples are relatively simple to conduct, as are tests with animals, some of which have been done. Basically, what you have to do is give a group of people a lot to drink, apply the remedy in question, and then, the next morning, score them on a number of measures in comparison with people who consumed the same amount of alcohol without the remedy. cause and effect essay on drinking alcohol Many people advise you to eat a heavy meal, with lots of protein and fats, before or while drinking. cause and effect essay on drinking alcohol

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